A group of physicians, virologists, and veterinarians at the Mayo Clinic and colaborators in Japan have taken what might seem like an unorthodox approach to fighting aids: genetically modified, glow-in-the-dark cats (!). Published in the most recent issue of Nature Methods, the study produced cats with intrinsic immunity to Feline AIDS, an epidemic among domestic cats, in hopes of using similar methods to fight the AIDS epidemic in humans.
They’re using what’s called a “genome based immunization strategy,” which is kind of like vaccinating your genome. Both humans and cats lack important proteins called restriction factors to fight HIV and FIV. So, the mayo team found a way to insert a gene from rhesus monkeys that produces immunodifficiency virus fighting restriction factors into a cat’s genome. Before the eggs were even fertilized, they shot them up with a gene eloquently named TRIMCyp. They tacked a jellyfish gene on, so that they would be able to see if the monkey gene was expressed. More specifically, they used the gene that codes for green fluorescent protein, which makes jellyfish glow underwater. (Part of me thinks that last bit was partially just for the awesomeness of making fluorescent cats, but I realize that scientists have been making stuff glow ever since they figured out what green fluorescent protein does.) The end result: cats that had the resistance gene, glow green under blue light.
LiveScience has an awesome photo gallery of adorable highlighter-colored cats.
The next step for the researchers will be to expose the kitties to FIV, and see if it works.
I meant to write about this on Friday, but ended up working all weekend. A report came out last Monday revealing that not only were US Scientists with the Public Health Service involved with STD experiments on Guatemalans from 1946 to 1948, they knew what they were doing was ethically very very very very sketchy/wrong. The experiments came to light back in October, but the report, released at the monthly meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, indicates that these scientists were messing around on a far larger scale than originally thought.
Over 5,500 prisoners, mental patients, soldiers and children were recruited for the experiments, but they weren’t briefed about what they were getting into, as had been done with similar experiments in the US. The report, based on public health records and interviews, says about 1,300 who were exposed to the sexually transmitted diseases syphilis, gonorrhea and chancroid. Only about 700 were treated for their symptoms. At least 83 died, but there’s no way to directly link their deaths to the experiments.
The goal: to see if taking penicillin immediately after sex prevented STD infection.
The super sketchy bit: no one obtained their consent.
The part that will probably gross you out the most: Infection methods included bringing subjects to prostitutes who were already infected and pouring bacteria on open wounds (ick).
Obviously, not quite in line with the Hippocratic oath.
However, I should note that trials involving mental patients, prisoners, and soldiers to figure out how to manage and cure STDs like the syph and especially malaria were not uncommon in the 1940s. Why? Because these diseases killed more soldiers on both sides in the Pacific than any military weapon. It certainly doesn’t justfy what they did, but Random fact: in some cases malaria was seen as a form of treatment for mentally ill patients because the parasites reduced brain swelling. Obviously, doctors have way better methods of dealing with this stuff today. But, the really striking thing to take away from this is that subjects in the U. S. volunteered and were briefed, whereas those in Guatemala never gave consent. It’s the difference that has gotten everyone in a huff.